Biomass:

Biomass has been a major energy source, prior to the discovery of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum. Even though its role is presently diminished in developed countries, it is still widely used in rural communities of the developing countries for their energy needs in terms of cooking and limited industrial use.

­­­Biomass is a natural substance available, which stores solar energy by the process of photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight. It chiefly contains cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, with an average composition of C6H10O5, with slight variations depending on the nature of the biomass.

Biomass has always been an important energy source for the country considering the benefits it offers.  It is renewable, widely available, carbon-neutral and has the potential to provide significant employment in the rural areas.  Biomass is also capable of providing firm energy.  About 32% of the total primary energy use in the country is still derived from biomass and more than 70% of the country’s population depends upon it for its energy needs. 

The Government of Madhya Pradesh has taken note of the growing recognition of impacts of climate change and recognizes the need to tackle challenges that arise on account of these impacts through integrated policy prescriptions and programmes aimed at mitigation of impacts and adaptation to reduce vulnerability of systems. Based on this green initiative, by endorsing the essential need to prevent avoidable erosion of natural carbon – energy resources the state is endowed with, the state is committed to promote promotion of generation of electricity from Renewable Energy sources.

 

Potential:

The ‘Biomass Resource Atlas of India” projects the gross potential for energy generation from Agricultural sources at 1386.2 MWe and 2060.6 MWe from forests ,wastelands respectively in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

The biomass wise potential in the state has been given below:

Biomass

Power Potential

(kWe)

Husk

248.161

Stalks

886.57

Leaves

561.467

Cobs

41.08

Shell

158.11

Bark

477.15

Residue

0.3

Branches

477.15

Others

0.06

Twigs

477.15

Straw

44

Pod

75.3

 

Achievement:

Biomass based power projects with a cumulative capacity of around 32 MW has been commissioned in the state as on 19 November,2010.

 

Technology:

1.      Bagasse based Co-generation :

 

In simple terms, cogeneration is the process of using a single fuel to produce more than one form of energy in sequence. Cogeneration of steam and electricity can significantly increase the overall efficiencies of fuel utilization in process industries. A minimum condition for cogeneration is the simultaneous requirement of heat and electricity in a favourable ratio, which is well fulfilled in the sugar industry. The thermodynamics of electricity production necessitates the rejection of a large quantity of heat to a lower temperature sink. In normal electricity generation plants, this heat rejection takes place in condensers where up to 70% of heat in steam is rejected to the atmosphere. In cogeneration mode, however, this heat is not wasted and is instead used to meet process heating requirement. The overall efficiency of fuel utilization can thus be increased to 60% or even higher in some cases. Capacity of cogeneration projects can range from a few kilowatts to several megawatts of electricity generation along with simultaneous production of heat ranging from less than a hundred kWth (kilowatts thermal) to many MWth (megawatts thermal).

2.      Biomass based Power Generation :

 

The technology for generation of electricity from these biomass materials is similar to the conventional coal-based thermal power generation. The biomass is burnt in boilers to generate steam, which drives a turbo alternator for generation of electricity.

3.      Biomass Gasification :

 

Biomass gasification is thermo-chemical conversion of solid biomass into a combustible gas mixture (producer gas) through a partial combustion route with air supply restricted to less than that theoretically required for full combustion. Typical composition of producer gas is

Carbon Monoxide (18%-20%), Hydrogen (15%-20%), Methane (1%-5%), Carbon dioxide (9%-12%), Nitrogen (45%-55%). The calorific value of the producer gas is in the range of 1000-1200 kcal/m3.

 

 

 

                        

                           

                 

Sr .No     Discription
 1- Click Here for Application form for Biomass Power Project
 2- Status of Biomass
 3- State GOVT Policy for Promotion of Non - Conventional Source of Energy (17/10/2006)